Back osteochondrosis

With degenerative-dystrophic changes, osteochondrosis of the spine is noted. In the event of a violation, the intervertebral discs, adjacent mobile joints and the entire ligament apparatus are damaged. Spinal osteochondrosis initially shows no signs, but as the disease progresses, a person complains of intense pain, reduced motor function, and increased sensitivity.

With early diagnosis and treatment, it is possible to stop spinal disease and return to normal life.

Features of osteochondrosis of the spine

Main reason

A person's vertebrae is damaged to some degree over time, but not everyone develops osteochondrosis. The development of spinal disease is affected by various external and internal negative factors. After the onset of pathology, degeneration of the intervertebral discs is noted. The following causes of osteochondrosis of the spine are distinguished:

  • infectious disorders in which the tissues are chronically inflamed;
  • flat feet, due to which the load is unevenly distributed, which leads to muscle imbalance;
  • scoliosis and incorrect construction of the spine;
  • asthenic body type or connective tissue dysplasia;
  • excess body weight;
  • muscle hypertonus;
  • insufficiently active lifestyle and prolonged stay in a static position;
  • improper working conditions, as a result of which a person is constantly in the cold, physically over-tired or exposed to vibrations;
  • spinal injuries of varying complexity;
  • wearing high-heeled shoes;
  • pregnancy, in which the load on the spine increases.

Stages of the disease

Osteochondrosis in adults goes through 4 stages of development, each of which undergoes special changes. If the patient is not helped in time, the disease will become severe and the patient may become disabled, completely losing the ability to move. The table shows the characteristic changes of the different stages of osteochondrosis of the spine.

phases Special features
I Loss of water in the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral region, which leads to a decrease in the height of the disc
Crack formation in the fibrous ring
Little discomfort and pain when sitting or walking
II Reduce the distance between the discs in the area of different parts of the spine
Failure of the ligament and muscular apparatus
Displacement of one or more vertebrae with subsequent development of spondylolisthesis
III Prolapse and protrusion of the discs
Subluxations and arthrosis of the mobile intervertebral joints
Stiff movements and acute sensations in the lower limbs
Pain in several areas
IV Bone growths (osteophytes) that often damage nerve endings
fibrous ankylosis in discs and movable joints
Mineralization of the intervertebral discs, as a result of which the spine is a motionless bone column

How do the different types of violations manifest themselves?

Cervical osteochondrosis symptoms

Shoulder pain - a manifestation of osteochondrosis of the cervical spine

If the cervical-vertebral section is damaged, the patient complains of painful manifestations that radiate to the shoulder or upper limb. The affected area causes burning sensations and muscle spasms appear. Cervical-vertebral manifestation of osteochondrosis leads to the following symptoms:

  • throbbing headache;
  • dizziness, leading to a feeling of nausea and vomiting;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • impaired visual function, in which there are spots of different colors and flies in front of the eyes;
  • noise in the ears;
  • impaired coordination;
  • sensation of a foreign object in the throat.

If the treatment regimen for osteochondrosis of the spine is not selected in time, an ischemic stroke develops, which threatens the patient's life.

Chest type signs

A manifestation of pathology in the thoracic region can be pain in this area of ​​the back

A patient with this type of disease will have pain in the shoulder blade area. If the displaced vertebrae compress the roots of the intercostal nerve, neuralgia will occur in this area, manifested by the following symptoms:

  • manifestations of acute pain in the sternum;
  • inability to take a deep breath;
  • pain and numbness in the affected part of the spine.

Often discomfort is given to the peritoneum, as a result of which the patient may mistakenly suspect a disease of the digestive system. Osteochondrosis of this type leads to impaired blood circulation and innervation, as a result of which dysfunction of some internal organs is noted, which are localized near the chest.

Lumbar injury

The patient has constant pain in the lower back, especially during physical exertion or when the weather changes. Often, against the background of osteochondrosis, varicose veins and pain in the legs are noted. If there has been a significant proliferation of bone tissue, the sciatic nerve is pinched and inflamed. The patient is concerned about the following symptoms:

  • severe attacks of pain of a different nature, especially acute in the buttock region;
  • reduced sensitivity in the lower limbs and pelvic area;
  • limping and hypotension;
  • dystrophic phenomena in the muscles;
  • dysfunction of the pelvic organs.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of osteochondrosis includes a medical examination of the spine

Vertebral osteochondrosis requires a timely visit to a doctor who will help restore the damaged back. Modern equipment makes it possible to establish a diagnosis at an early stage of development. In case of pathology, they go to a neurologist or an orthopedist. First, the injured spine is examined and an anamnesis is performed, then laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods are prescribed for detecting osteochondrosis:

  • X-ray;
  • myelography;
  • neurological examination;
  • CT and MRI;
  • nuclear magnetic resonance.

What is the treatment?

Traditional therapeutic methods

Osteochondrosis of the back can be cured with complex treatment, based on modern drugs. It is possible to treat the disease with such medicines:

  • Painkillers, from which it is indicated to make blocks.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. These drugs are taken intermittently.
  • Chondroprotectors.
  • Warming ointments and gels of local action.

Physiotherapy

Good results in osteochondrosis are given by kinesitherapy

Effectively helps with osteochondrosis of spine physiotherapy, which includes the following procedures:

  • Reflexology. During manipulation, a point effect occurs on the damaged area, as a result of which the pain sensations, spasms of the patient decrease and blood flow improves.
  • Kinesitherapy. During the procedures, a person moves a lot, performs therapeutic exercises, exercises on simulators, stretches the spine.
  • Electrophysiotherapy. This subspecies of physiotherapy includes UHF, pulsed current treatment, transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation, and more.
  • I swim. Thanks to this method, it is possible to normalize the condition even for patients who have been diagnosed with pronounced osteochondrosis and it is difficult for them to perform gymnastics in the air.

Features of manual therapy

The general principles for the treatment of osteochondrosis of the spine include the procedures of a manologist who performs massage, affecting all the vertebrae. For a positive result, at least 20 sessions are required. Before starting the use of such treatment, it is worth consulting a doctor, since there are a number of contraindications:

  • diseases of internal organs;
  • bring a child;
  • cancer tumor;
  • high blood pressure;
  • recent injuries to the spine or legs.
Spinal cord compression an indication for surgery

When is an operation needed?

If chronic osteochondrosis of the spine has developed in adults, and conservative therapy does not help, then radical therapeutic measures are resorted to. In addition, surgery is required in these cases:

  • subluxation of the vertebrae;
  • hernia;
  • acute compression of the spinal cord;
  • spinal deformity.

After surgery, the patient recovers for a long time, taking medications and undergoing physiotherapy.

Diet and gymnastics

Treatment of osteochondrosis of the spine is impossible without observing special nutrition and performing gymnastic exercises. The diet includes meals divided into small portions - at least 6 times a day. The daily flow rate of liquid is 1. 5 liters. It is recommended to cook all products in a water bath so that the body receives the maximum amount of vitamins. With osteochondrosis of the spine, grapes, beans, flour, spicy, sweet, salty and other harmful foods are limited. Allowed to use:

  • fresh seasonal fruit and vegetables;
  • Dairy product;
  • lean meat and fish;
  • Physical therapy will help strengthen the weakened muscle corset of the back with osteochondrosis
  • aspic;
  • nuts and sunflower seeds;
  • mushrooms;
  • various cereals.

Thanks to gymnastics and physical therapy, it is possible to strengthen the muscular and joint apparatus, as well as correct posture, which suffered from osteochondrosis. You shouldn't be treated with a general set of exercises, because it's not suitable for everyone. You should consult a doctor who will draw up an individual lesson plan, taking into account the complexity of the pathology and condition of the spine.

Prevention measures

In order to avoid osteochondrosis of the spine and a person could live normally, one should lead an active lifestyle and monitor posture. If work requires constant sitting, take regular breaks for a short workout. It is recommended to avoid excessive physical exertion and not to lift heavy objects. Shoes should be comfortable, women shouldn't abuse heels. If you experience pain in the spine, you should see a doctor and check the whole body.